The building plans and designs are finalised at this stage, which is the most vital and significant one, and care is taken to ensure that the construction schedule is well-planned. To adhere to adequate safety precautions, suitable building practice’s are required.
The most crucial element in extending the life and safety of any building structure is a solid foundation. Several practical checks for a solid foundation are made before creating the building’s foundation, it is preferable to have the soil tested.
The foundation should be set on solid ground and extended down at least 1.2 metres from the original ground level.
To securely transfer the load to the ground upon which it sits, the foundation’s area must be substantial.
It is crucial to designate the position and size of the foundation before excavation since the area of the foundation relies on the soil’s load-bearing capability.
Design and Construction
A plan is used to mark out areas where the foundation will be dug. Layout and excavation work must be completed in accordance with the drawing. Find some helpful advice in the following:
- Appropriate surveys be done to produce the layout blueprint.
- Mark each trench excavation line in relation to the wall’s centerline.
- Make sure the excavation follows the specified levels, slopes, shapes, and patterns.
- Water and ram the excavation bed to solidify it.
Lean concrete should be poured into any holes dug out from soft or faulty ground.
- To prevent the excavation area’s sides from collapsing, tight soaring work should be used to brace the excavation’s sides.
It is a temporary structure designed to sustain the building while the concrete work is being completed and to allow the concrete to get the necessary strength before being released.
In order to prevent the loss of concrete slurry, the formwork should be designed and built to be sufficiently stiff during the placement and compacting of concrete. It is also preferable if the formwork is leak-proof.
To give concrete a smooth surface, use a releasing agent.
Before casting, the formwork needs to be adequately free of extraneous objects.
A Concrete Job
The right proportions must be used in the concrete mix, and the mixture must be used within 30 minutes after preparation. The greatest outcomes need the use of mixer machines. The right water ratio must be used since adding too much water weakens the concrete and increases the likelihood of breaking. The vertical vibrator is used for compaction. To prevent any aggregate separation, the concrete mix was poured to a maximum height of 1.5 metres. To prevent water buildup on the roof, proper roof levelling and slope should be maintained during concrete placement.
A termite infestation may harm wooden components and impair the construction of a building. The following are some helpful suggestions for keeping termites out of your home:
- The soil surrounding the foundation should be chemically treated up to the plinth level.
- The chemical barrier must be comprehensive and continuous.
- Treatment is possible before, during, and after construction.
- It is important to take precautions to prevent the pollutants from contaminating home water supplies.
If the walls are skillfully constructed, robust, and durable, buildings become safe. See the advice below:
- L/H ratio must be correctly maintained for block work, and RCC band with stool columns, among other things, must be given in accordance with IS code.
- Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Work has to be done by measuring a few stages.
Batching, Mixing, & Placing to make the brickwork strong
For easy batching, keep the right ratio of components by using a wooden box in the appropriate sizes. For maximum results, utilise a mixer machine at all times. After preparation, place all of the concrete mix within 30 minutes. To get the necessary workability, use water. More water makes the concrete more brittle and increases the likelihood of breaking. Proper compaction requires using a vibrator vertically. Overvibrating concrete is not permitted. Water shouldn’t be added when compacting.
Bricks or blocks should be placed on a thick layer of correctly mixed mortar under the engineer’s direction.
The joints should be completely packed and filled with the same mixture of mortar.
The vertical joint needs to be completed in stages.
Curing refers to the process of keeping the concrete moist. During the relieving system, the substantial solidifies and gets most extreme strength. After casting, concrete begins to dry, so curing should begin within 12 to 15 hours. Therefore, the parts that are going to be exposed to the environment ought to dry first. According to BIS codes, the curing process is ongoing for the allotted time. Concrete slabs and beams typically require 14 to 21 days to cure properly.
The formation of ponds should be used for curing flat surfaces like roofs, floors, and so on. After the shuttering has been removed, used jute bags must be wrapped around the columns, and water must be sprinkled on them at least three to four times per day for two to three weeks to keep them wet.
It is a crucial part in Built up Concrete Cement. In order to prevent the R.C.C. members from cracking or being destroyed, it is essential to select the appropriate steel and position it appropriately. The following are some helpful hints:
The best TMT bar for the entire structure should be the same grade and quality. The bar bending schedule should be planned out well in advance before cutting and bending the TMT bar. Use concrete cover blocks at regular intervals that are the same strength as the TMT bar. Reinforcement bars should be positioned correctly and tightly fixed. For the bars that are joining an adequate lap, the length needs to be maintained, and laps should be staggered.
The required tensile strength, the uniformity of the bars’ physical properties across their length, adequate ductility, and lower impurities make them simple to bend (during fabrication).
It safeguards the uncovered surfaces and workmanship joints from outside climate and gives sidelong security to a wall by restricting all blocks or stones together.
Taking strict measures to make your house waterproof is critical to protecting your precious building. a variety of waterproofing methods that you can use both during and after the construction.